Ionic Liquids in the Biorefinery Concept
The implementation of ionic liquids technologies in future biorefineries is challenging. Different approaches can be applied along the entire chain of biomass valorisation to achieve a specific target molecule, from biomass pre-treatment and fractionation processes to extraction, downstream separation and purification methodologies of high value added products and pivot chemicals. This book summarises recent achievements in the use of ionic liquids in biomass processing as an alternative to conventional processes, particularly in the context of green chemistry. It features real-world case studies where high value-added products have been obtained using ionic liquid processing, demonstrating the practical applications of these technologies. The book concludes by assessing the development of further biorefineries with ionic liquids. The book is an important reference for researchers and practising chemists, bringing readers up-to-date with current research in this field.
High Pressure Technologies in Biomass Conversion
In recent years carbon dioxide has played an increasingly important role in biomass processing. This book presents the state-of-the-art of a range of diverse approaches for the use of carbon dioxide in biomass valorisation. The book explores cutting-edge research and important advances in green high-pressure technologies. It gives an overview of the most relevant and promising applications of high-pressure CO2-based technologies in biomass processing from the perspective of the biorefinery concept. Demonstrating the interdisciplinary aspects of high-pressure technologies from biology, chemistry and biochemical engineering areas, this book brings researchers and industrialists up to date with the latest advances in this field, including novel technologies for energy; biochemicals and materials production; and green chemical engineering processes.
Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels and Chemicals
There is increasing recognition that low-cost, high capacity processes for the conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals are essential for expanding the utilization of carbon neutral processes, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and increasing rural income. While much attention has focused on the use of biomass to produce ethanol via fermentation, high capacity processes are also required for the production of hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. In this context, this book provides an up-to-date overview of the thermochemical methods available for biomass conversion to liquid fuels and chemicals. In addition to traditional conversion technologies such as fast pyrolysis, new developments are considered, including catalytic routes for the production of liquid fuels from carbohydrates and the use of ionic liquids for lignocellulose utilization. The individual chapters, written by experts in the field, provide an introduction to each topic, as well as describing recent research developments.
The Role of Green Chemistry in Biomass Processing and Conversion
Sets the stage for the development of sustainable, environmentally friendly fuels, chemicals, and materials Taking millions of years to form, fossil fuels are nonrenewable resources; it is estimated that they will be depleted by the end of this century. Moreover, the production and use of fossil fuels have resulted in considerable environmental harm. The generation of environmentally friendly energy from renewable sources such as biomass is therefore essential. This book focuses on the integration of green chemistry concepts into biomass processes and conversion in order to take full advantage of the potential of biomass to replace nonsustainable resources and meet global needs for fuel as well as other chemicals and materials. The Role of Green Chemistry in Biomass Processing and Conversion features contributions from leading experts from Asia, Europe, and North America. Focusing on lignocellulosic biomass, the most abundant biomass resource, the book begins with a general introduction to biomass and biorefineries and then provides an update on the latest advances in green chemistry that support biomass processing and conversion. Next, the authors describe current and emerging biomass processing and conversion techniques that use green chemistry technologies, including: Green solvents such as ionic liquids, supercritical CO2, and water Sustainable energy sources such as microwave irradiation and sonification Green catalytic technologies Advanced membrane separation technologies The last chapter of the book explores the ecotoxicological and environmental effects of converting and using fuels, chemicals, and materials from biomass. Recommended for professionals and students in chemical engineering, green chemistry, and energy and fuels, The Role of Green Chemistry in Biomass Processing and Conversion sets a strong foundation for the development of a competitive and sustainable bioeconomy. This monograph includes a Foreword by James Clark (University of York, UK).
Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass
Nature provides us with an abundance of chemical potential. Presenting an overview of the use of bioresources in the 21st century, Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass covers resources, chemical composition of biomass, key factors affecting composition, utilization of wastes, extraction technologies, controlled pyrolysis, fermentation, platform molecules, and green chemical technologies for their conversion to valuable chemicals. The text shows how smaller volume chemicals could become bulk chemicals as a result of a greater exploitation of biomass products, making it an important resource for academic and industrial scientists and researchers.
Handbook of Cellulosic Ethanol
Comprehensive coverage on the growing science and technology of producing ethanol from the world's abundant cellulosic biomass The inevitable decline in petroleum reserves and its impact on gasoline prices, combined with climate change concerns, have contributed to current interest in renewable fuels. Bioethanol is the most successful renewable transport fuel—with corn and sugarcane ethanol currently in wide use as blend-in fuels in the United States, Brazil, and a few other countries. However, there are a number of major drawbacks in these first-generation biofuels, such as their effect on food prices, net energy balance, and poor greenhouse gas mitigation. Alternatively, cellulosic ethanol can be produced from abundant lignocellulosic biomass forms such as agricultural or municipal wastes, forest residues, fast growing trees, or grasses grown in marginal lands, and should be producible in substantial amounts to meet growing global energy demand. The Handbook of Cellulosic Ethanol covers all aspects of this new and vital alternative fuel source, providing readers with the background, scientific theory, and recent research progress in producing cellulosic ethanol via different biochemical routes, as well as future directions. The seventeen chapters include information on: Advantages of cellulosic ethanol over first-generation ethanol as a transportation fuel Various biomass feedstocks that can be used to make cellulosic ethanol Details of the aqueous phase or cellulolysis route, pretreatment, enzyme or acid saccharification, fermentation, simultaneous saccharification fermentation, consolidated bioprocessing, genetically modified microorganisms, and yeasts Details of the syngas fermentation or thermochemical route, gasifiers, syngas cleaning, microorganisms for syngas fermentation, and chemical catalysts for syngas-to-ethanol conversion Distillation and dehydration to fuel-grade ethanol Techno-economical aspects and the future of cellulosic ethanol Readership Chemical engineers, chemists, and technicians working on renewable energy and fuels in industry, research institutions, and universities. The Handbook can also be used by students interested in biofuels and renewable energy issues.
Green Extraction of Natural Products
Extraction processes are essential steps in numerous industrial applications from perfume over pharmaceutical to fine chemical industry. By using natural products, we are able to reduce the environmental impact of industry whilst improving quality and profit.This book presents a complete picture of current knowledge on the green extraction of natural products in terms of innovative processes, original methods, alternative solvents and safe products, and provides the necessary theoretical background as well as industrial application examples and environmental impacts. Each chapter is written by experts in the field and the strong focus on green chemistry throughout the book makes this book a unique reference source.This book is intended to be a first step towards a future cooperation in a new extraction of natural products, built to improve both fundamental and green parameters of the techniques and to increase the amount of extracts obtained from renewable resources with a minimum consumption of energy and solvents, and the maximum safety for operators and the environment.The target audience is industry professionals as well as academicians engaged in separationand extraction engineering or natural product chemistry research, and graduate level students.
Disoluci n de madera de Pinus radiata y Eucalyptus globulus en l quidos i nicos basados en el cati n 1 alquil 3 metilimidazolio y regeneraci n de celulosa y lignina
In this chapter, a brief summary of the research is shown, including the aim of the work as well as the main results and conclusions that have been obtained. In the last few years, the growing interest in the biorefinery concept has focused the attention of researchers on the efficient and sustainable employment of biomass and lignocellulosic materials. In the biorefinery, the lignocellulosic materials are transformed into bio-derivatives and value-added products. However, the efficient valorization of these materials in the facility using a green method requires the dissolution and separation of the biomass compounds, which is difficult because of the complex structure of the material. Cellulose and lignin are polymers with a variety of industrial applications. For instance, cellulose can be employed as additive in food industries, as excipient in pharmaceuticals, or as raw material in the synthesis of derivative products. With respect to lignin, it is employed as adsorbent, precursor of activated carbons, or in phenolic resins, among other applications. However only a few common solvents are able to dissolve both polymers, which hampers their efficient utilizations. Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts with a large organic cation and an organic or inorganic anion. These salts have been shown in the last few years as good solvents of cellulose, lignin and a wide range of lignocellulosic materials. A useful feature of ILs is that they can be designed for a certain purpose, just modifying the anion and/or the cation. Moreover ILs have interesting properties such as low vapor pressure, high thermal stability and low melting points. Therefore, in the context of biorefinery, ionic liquids (ILs) appear as an attractive option for cellulose and lignin separation from wood...
Porous Carbon Materials from Sustainable Precursors
Porous carbon materials are at the heart of many applications, including renewable energy storage and generation, due to their superior physical properties and availability. The environmentally-friendly production of these materials is crucial for a sustainable future. This book focuses on the transformation of sustainable precursors into functional, porous carbonaceous materials via the two most significant approaches: Starbon® and Hydrothermal Carbonisation. Covering cutting-edge research and emerging areas, chapters cover applications of porous carbon materials in catalysis and separation science as well as in energy science. Moreover, the challenges of characterization of these materials and their commercialization are explained by worldwide experts. The content will be accessible and valuable to post-graduate students and senior researchers alike and it will serve as a significant reference for academics and industrialists working in the areas of materials science, catalysis and separation science.
The consumption of petroleum has surged during the 20th century, at least partially because of the rise of the automobile industry. Today, fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas provide more than three quarters of the world's energy. Unfortunately, the growing demand for fossil fuel resources comes at a time of diminishing reserves of these nonrenewable resources. The worldwide reserves of oil are sufficient to supply energy and chemicals for only about another 40 years, causing widening concerns about rising oil prices. The use of biomass to produce energy is only one form of renewable energy that can be utilized to reduce the impact of energy production and use on the global environment. Biomass can be converted into three main products such as energy, biofuels and fine chemicals using a number of different processes. Today, it is a great challenge for researchers to find new environmentally benign methodology for biomass conversion, which are industrially profitable as well. This book focuses on the conversion of biomass to biofuels, bioenergy and fine chemicals with the interface of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry and materials science. An international scientific authorship summarizes the state-of-the-art of the current research and gives an outlook on future developments.