Agrarian change in tropical landscapes
Agricultural expansion has transformed and fragmented forest habitats at alarming rates across the globe, but particularly so in tropical landscapes. The resulting land-use configurations encompass varying mosaics of tree cover, human settlements and agricultural land units. Meanwhile, global demand for agricultural commodities is at unprecedented levels. The need to feed nine billion people by 2050 in a world of changing food demands is causing increasing agricultural intensification. As such, market-orientated production systems are now increasingly replacing traditional farming practices, but at what cost? The Agrarian Change project, coordinated by the Center for International Forestry Research, explores the conservation, livelihood and food security implications of land-use and agrarian change processes at the landscape scale. This book provides detailed background information on seven multi-functional landscapes in Ethiopia, Cameroon, Indonesia, Nicaragua, Bangladesh, Zambia and Burkina Faso. The focal landscapes were selected as they exhibit various scenarios of changing forest cover, agricultural modification and integration with local and global commodity markets. A standardized research protocol will allow for future comparative analyses between these sites. Each case study chapter provides a comprehensive description of the physical and socioeconomic context of each focal landscape and a structured account of the historical and political drivers of land-use change occurring in the area. Each case study also draws on contemporary information obtained from key informant interviews, focus group discussions and preliminary data collection regarding key topics of interest including: changes in forest cover and dependency on forest products, farming practices, tenure institutions, the role and presence of conservation initiatives, and major economic activities. The follow-on empirical study is already underway in the landscapes described in this book. It examines responses to agrarian change processes at household, farm, village and landscape levels with a focus on poverty levels, food security, dietary diversity and nutrition, agricultural yields, biodiversity, migration and land tenure. This research intends to provide much needed insights into how landscape-scale land-use trajectories manifest in local communities and advance understanding of multi-functional landscapes as socioecological systems.
The Conditions of Agricultural Growth
Investigating the process of agrarian change, this book analyzes costs and productivity under the main systems of primitive agriculture. The conclusion is that technical, economic and social changes are unlikely to take place within primitive agriculture unless the rural community concerned is exposed to the pressure of population growth: a conclusion that is in sharp contrast to generally accepted ideas. The themes in the book are central to the discussion of the problems of population explosion and the world's undernourished peoples.
Agroforestry and biodiversity conservation in tropical landscapes
Agroforestry -- the practice of integrating trees and other large woody perennials on farms and throughout the agricultural landscape -- is increasingly recognized as a useful and promising strategy that diversifies production for greater social, economic, and environmental benefits. Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes brings together 46 scientists and practitioners from 13 countries with decades of field experience in tropical regions to explore how agroforestry practices can help promote biodiversity conservation in human-dominated landscapes, to synthesize the current state of knowledge in the field, and to identify areas where further research is needed. Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes is the first comprehensive synthesis of the role of agroforestry systems in conserving biodiversity in tropical landscapes, and contains in-depth review chapters of most agroforestry systems, with examples from many different countries. It is a valuable source of information for scientists, researchers, professors, and students in the fields of conservation biology, resource management, tropical ecology, rural development, agroforestry, and agroecology.
Forest patches in the tropical landscape the conservation of migratory birds
Each year, billions of birds move between the forests of North America & tropical America. Many scientists are concerned with the decline of the magnificent migration systems as habitats are degraded on both ends of the flyways. The Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center is initiating a series of monographs addressing critical issues facing the conservation of migratory birds. Healthy populations of migratory birds depend upon the condition of habitats, which is in turn the result of good stewardship of the land. The SMBC will focus this series on land use & conservation issues that affect both migratory birds & the diversity of life in general. Most importantly, the SMBC recognizes that humans are an inseparable part of the habitat for migratory birds. The papers will present a synthetic, interdisciplinary approach to the biological conservation & social problems involved with the critical land use issues facing migratory bird conservation. The Series first contribution, FOREST PATCHES IN THE TROPICAL LANDSCAPE & THE CONSERVATION OF MIGRATORY BIRDS, will address the conservation of patches of native vegetation in the tropical landscape as a strategy for conserving migratory birds as well as an important component of sustainable land use. To order contact: Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center, National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C. 20008.
Land Change Science in the Tropics Changing Agricultural Landscapes
Andrew Millington A été écrit sous une forme ou une autre pendant la plus grande partie de sa vie. Vous pouvez trouver autant d'inspiration de Land Change Science in the Tropics Changing Agricultural Landscapes Aussi informatif et amusant. Cliquez sur le bouton TÉLÉCHARGER ou Lire en ligne pour obtenir gratuitement le livre de titre $ gratuitement.
The State and Agrarian Change in Zimbabwe s Communal Areas
Michael Drinkwater A été écrit sous une forme ou une autre pendant la plus grande partie de sa vie. Vous pouvez trouver autant d'inspiration de The State and Agrarian Change in Zimbabwe s Communal Areas Aussi informatif et amusant. Cliquez sur le bouton TÉLÉCHARGER ou Lire en ligne pour obtenir gratuitement le livre de titre $ gratuitement.
Forests in a Changing Climate
Ata H. Qureshi A été écrit sous une forme ou une autre pendant la plus grande partie de sa vie. Vous pouvez trouver autant d'inspiration de Forests in a Changing Climate Aussi informatif et amusant. Cliquez sur le bouton TÉLÉCHARGER ou Lire en ligne pour obtenir gratuitement le livre de titre $ gratuitement.
Fluvial Dynamics and Cultural Landscape Evolution in the Rio Grande de Nazca Drainage Basin Southern Peru
The aim of this research is to reconstruct the landscape evolution in the lower Rio Grande drainage basin during the Late Holocene and to detect interrelations between landscape evolution, cultural development, climatic changes and extreme events. Central to this is to identify and, if possible, quantify factors of landscape change. In doing so, the author differentiates natural from anthropogenic factors, i.e. to determine both the natural and the human impacts on the landscape. An important question is whether climatic changes and extreme events have had an influence on past societies.
Modelling Global Change Impacts on Tropical Landscapes and Biodiversity
Louis Lebel A été écrit sous une forme ou une autre pendant la plus grande partie de sa vie. Vous pouvez trouver autant d'inspiration de Modelling Global Change Impacts on Tropical Landscapes and Biodiversity Aussi informatif et amusant. Cliquez sur le bouton TÉLÉCHARGER ou Lire en ligne pour obtenir gratuitement le livre de titre $ gratuitement.
Agrarian change in Sri Lanka
Recent transformations in Sri Lanka's agrarian structures have been both complex and uneven. While the overall direction of change has been towards a more capitalist form of organization, the process of transformation has been heterogeneous, contradictory, and, furthermore, varied widely from region to region. This volume explores both the range and the complexity of these processes by bringing together a set of ethnographic studies conducted in six of Sri Lanka's nine provinces. All thirteen essays trace the changes that have occurred in the four decades since independence. Contributors combine enthnographic with historical research and place their respective analysis of agrarian change within local cultural contexts. They treat agrarian change as a dynamic social process and convey a sense of how that change is experienced by the villagers. A number of common themes run through the collection, including the interplay between local initiatives and state policies; the complex ways in which capitalist schemes of production interact with existing agrarian institutions; and the refashioning of local identities as village life is incorporated into ever-widening circuits of economic, political, and cultural relations. With its new research data and unique theoretical perspectives, this volume will be of interest to sociologists, anthropologists, development economists, social and economic historians, agricultural economists, and those studying rural development and agrarian change in South Asia. "Book as a whole does go beyond accounting for economic changes, and provides multiple and integrated approaches to studying agrarian transformation elsewhere." --Contributions to Indian Sociology "A useful book, providing a wealth of detailed ethnographic evidence concerning the influence of capitalist relations of production on smallholder agriculture in Sri Lanka. It concludes with a helpful glossary giving translations and definitions of local terminology." --Third World Quarterly "The book is an exploration of the process of development and its impact on the lives of people. It is a very useful addition to the literature on Sri Lankan development studies." --Business Standard "What's inside the covers will interest scholars beyond the usual robe, rice, and plough set; this book amply demonstrates why no analysis of agrarian change can ignore the cultural and symbolic dimensions of agrarian activity." --Journal of Asian Studies