From the author of 1491—the best-selling study of the pre-Columbian Americas—a deeply engaging new history of the most momentous biological event since the death of the dinosaurs. More than 200 million years ago, geological forces split apart the continents. Isolated from each other, the two halves of the world developed radically different suites of plants and animals. When Christopher Columbus set foot in the Americas, he ended that separation at a stroke. Driven by the economic goal of establishing trade with China, he accidentally set off an ecological convulsion as European vessels carried thousands of species to new homes across the oceans. The Columbian Exchange, as researchers call it, is the reason there are tomatoes in Italy, oranges in Florida, chocolates in Switzerland, and chili peppers in Thailand. More important, creatures the colonists knew nothing about hitched along for the ride. Earthworms, mosquitoes, and cockroaches; honeybees, dandelions, and African grasses; bacteria, fungi, and viruses; rats of every description—all of them rushed like eager tourists into lands that had never seen their like before, changing lives and landscapes across the planet. Eight decades after Columbus, a Spaniard named Legazpi succeeded where Columbus had failed. He sailed west to establish continual trade with China, then the richest, most powerful country in the world. In Manila, a city Legazpi founded, silver from the Americas, mined by African and Indian slaves, was sold to Asians in return for silk for Europeans. It was the first time that goods and people from every corner of the globe were connected in a single worldwide exchange. Much as Columbus created a new world biologically, Legazpi and the Spanish empire he served created a new world economically. As Charles C. Mann shows, the Columbian Exchange underlies much of subsequent human history. Presenting the latest research by ecologists, anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians, Mann shows how the creation of this worldwide network of ecological and economic exchange fostered the rise of Europe, devastated imperial China, convulsed Africa, and for two centuries made Mexico City—where Asia, Europe, and the new frontier of the Americas dynamically interacted—the center of the world. In such encounters, he uncovers the germ of today’s fiercest political disputes, from immigration to trade policy to culture wars. In 1493, Charles Mann gives us an eye-opening scientific interpretation of our past, unequaled in its authority and fascination. From the Hardcover edition.
1634 The Baltic War
Fight for Freedom in a Dark and Bloody Age! After a cosmic accident sets the modern West Virginia town of Grantsville down in war-torn seventeenth century Europe, the United States of Europe is forged in the fire of battle. The Baltic War reaches a climax as France, Spain, England, and Denmark besiege the U.S.E. in the Prussian stronghold of Lubeck. The invention of ironclads, the introduction of special force tactics during a spectacular rescue operation at the Tower of London _ the up-timers plan to use every trick in the time traveler's book to avoid a defeat that will send Europe back to a new Dark Age! Multiple New York Times best-seller and creator of the legendary "Honorverse" series David Weber teams with New York Times best-selling alternate history master Eric Flint to tell the tale of the little town that remade a continent and rang in freedom for a battle-ravaged land in the latest blockbuster addition to Flint's "Grantsville" saga! At the publisher's request, this title is sold without DRM (Digital Rights Management). "This is a thoughtful and exciting look at just how powerful are the ideals we sometimes take for granted, and is highly recommended[.]" ¾ Publishers Weekly on Flint and Weber's 1633. "[R]eads like a Tom Clancy techno-thriller set in the age of the Medicisã" ¾ Publishers Weekly on New York Times best-seller, 1634:_ The Galileo Affair.
AMERICAN FREEDOM AND JUSTICE VS. THE TYRANNIES OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY The new government in central Europe, called the Confederated Principalities of Europe, was formed by an alliance between Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, and the West Virginians led by Mike Stearns who were transplanted into 17th-century Germany by a mysterious cosmic accident. The new regime is shaky. Outside its borders, the Thirty Years War continues to rage. Within, it is beset by financial crisis as well as the political and social tensions between the democratic ideals of the 20th-century Americans and the aristocracy which continues to rule the roost in the CPE as everywhere in Europe. Worst of all, the CPE has aroused the implacable hostility of Cardinal Richelieu, the effective ruler of France. Richelieu has created the League of Ostend in order to strike at the weakest link in the CPE's armor¾its dependence on the Baltic as the lifeline between Gustav Adolf's Sweden and the rest of his realm. The greatest naval war in European history is about to erupt. Like it or not, Gustavus Adolphus will have to rely on Mike Stearns and the technical wizardry of his obstreperous Americans to save the King of Sweden from ruin. Caught in the conflagration are two American diplomatic missions abroaRebecca Stearns' mission to France and Holland, and the embassy which Mike Stearns sent to King Charles of England headed by his sister Rita and Melissa Mailey. Rebecca finds herself trapped in war-torn Amsterdam; Rita and Melissa, imprisoned in the Tower of London. And much as Mike wants to transport 20th-century values into war-torn 17th-century Europe by Sweet Reason, still he finds comfort in the fact that Julie, who once trained to be an Olympic marksman, still has her rifle . . . At the publisher's request, this title is sold without DRM (Digital Rights Management).
For Reasons Of State
Chomsky S Second Major Collection Of Political Writings, Following His Pathbreaking American Power And The New Mandarins An Essential Record Of Chomsky S Political And Social Thought As It Was Sharpened On The Upheavals In Domestic And International Affairs Of The Early 1970S, For Reasons Of State Is A Major Addition To The Intellectual History Of The Vietnam Era. It Includes Articles On The War In Vietnam And The 'Wider War' In Laos And Cambodia, An Extensive Dissection Of The Pentagon Papers, Reflections On The Role Of Force In International Affairs, Essays On Civil Disobedience And The Role Of The University, And A Now-Classic Introduction To Anarchism. These Contributions Reveal Very Different Facets Of Chomsky S Powers As A Thinker, From His Uncanny Ability To Join Abstract Philosophical Considerations With The Concrete Political Realities Of His Time, To His Singular Capacity To Mount Withering, Fact-Based Critiques Of American Foreign Policy.
1636 The Saxon Uprising
A new addition to the four-time New York Times best-selling Ring of Fire series. After carving a place for itself among the struggling powers of 17th century Western Europe, the “out-of-time” modern town of Grantville, West Virginia must fight for its life against Dark Age domination. Alternate history master Eric Flint returns in top form with an epic addition to the multiple New York Times best selling Ring of Fire series. A cosmic accident sets the modern town of Grantville, West Virginia, down in war-torn seventeenth century Europe and a new nation is forged. Now when United States of Europe ally King Gustavas of Sweden invades Poland, the U.S. of E. is dragged into a full-scale European war against ruthless opponents. Meanwhile Mike Stearns, wily and courageous leader of the up-time West Virginians, has been turned out of office in an election. But, like Churchill (before and after him) Stearns is not done yet. He’s determined to stoke the fires of democratic rebellion in Saxony near the main front, and thus keep the young nation he founded, and once led, out of the hands of medieval tyrants–tyrants who would like nothing better than to wipe those troublesome upstarts from the future off the timeline and go back to the bad old days of oppression and serfdom. About Eric Flint’s Ring of Fire series: “This alternate history series is…a landmark…”–Booklist “[Eric] Flint's 1632 universe seems to be inspiring a whole new crop of gifted alternate historians.”–Booklist “…reads like a technothriller set in the age of the Medicis…”–Publishers Weekly “…each new entry appears better than the previous one, a seemingly impossible feat…terrific.” –Midwest Book Review “[C]ombines accurate historical research with bold leaps of the imagination.”–Library Journal
Sparse Distributed Memory
Motivated by the remarkable fluidity of memory the way in which items are pulled spontaneously and effortlessly from our memory by vague similarities to what is currently occupying our attention Sparse Distributed Memory presents a mathematically elegant theory of human long term memory. The book, which is self contained, begins with background material from mathematics, computers, and neurophysiology; this is followed by a step by step development of the memory model. The concluding chapter describes an autonomous system that builds from experience an internal model of the world and bases its operation on that internal model. Close attention is paid to the engineering of the memory, including comparisons to ordinary computer memories. Sparse Distributed Memory provides an overall perspective on neural systems. The model it describes can aid in understanding human memory and learning, and a system based on it sheds light on outstanding problems in philosophy and artificial intelligence. Applications of the memory are expected to be found in the creation of adaptive systems for signal processing, speech, vision, motor control, and (in general) robots. Perhaps the most exciting aspect of the memory, in its implications for research in neural networks, is that its realization with neuronlike components resembles the cortex of the cerebellum. Pentti Kanerva is a scientist at the Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science at the NASA Ames Research Center and a visiting scholar at the Stanford Center for the Study of Language and Information. A Bradford Book.
The Bottom Billion
In the universally acclaimed and award-winning The Bottom Billion, Paul Collier reveals that fifty failed states--home to the poorest one billion people on Earth--pose the central challenge of the developing world in the twenty-first century. The book shines much-needed light on this group of small nations, largely unnoticed by the industrialized West, that are dropping further and further behind the majority of the world's people, often falling into an absolute decline in living standards. A struggle rages within each of these nations between reformers and corrupt leaders--and the corrupt are winning. Collier analyzes the causes of failure, pointing to a set of traps that ensnare these countries, including civil war, a dependence on the extraction and export of natural resources, and bad governance. Standard solutions do not work, he writes; aid is often ineffective, and globalization can actually make matters worse, driving development to more stable nations. What the bottom billion need, Collier argues, is a bold new plan supported by the Group of Eight industrialized nations. If failed states are ever to be helped, the G8 will have to adopt preferential trade policies, new laws against corruption, new international charters, and even conduct carefully calibrated military interventions. Collier has spent a lifetime working to end global poverty. In The Bottom Billion, he offers real hope for solving one of the great humanitarian crises facing the world today. "Set to become a classic. Crammed with statistical nuggets and common sense, his book should be compulsory reading." --The Economist "If Sachs seems too saintly and Easterly too cynical, then Collier is the authentic old Africa hand: he knows the terrain and has a keen ear.... If you've ever found yourself on one side or the other of those arguments--and who hasn't?--then you simply must read this book." --Niall Ferguson, The New York Times Book Review "Rich in both analysis and recommendations.... Read this book. You will learn much you do not know. It will also change the way you look at the tragedy of persistent poverty in a world of plenty." --Financial Times
The Mahabharata is one of the greatest stories ever told. Though the basic plot is widely known, there is much more to the epic than the dispute between Kouravas and Pandavas that led to the battle in Kurukshetra. Indeed, there are innumerable sub-plots embedded in the Mahabharata's staggering 80,000 shlokas or couplets. This magnificent 10-volume unabridged translation is based on the Critical Edition compiled at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. The fourth volume of the Mahabharata includes Virata Parva and almost all of Udyoga Parva. It describes the Pandavas' thirteenth year of exile which they spend in disguise in King Virata's court. The Kouravas and Trigartas invade Matsya to rob Virata of his cattle, but the Pandavas defeat them in battle. With the period of banishment over, the Pandavas ask to be returned their share of the kingdom. This is refused and Udyoga Parva recounts the build up to an inevitable war. The Mahabharata continues to captivate swathes of readers for the simple reason that it explores the full range of human emotions. With this lucid translation, Debroy succeeds in making the epic accessible to a contemporary audience.
Frontiers of Fundamental Physics
The Olympia conference Frontiers of Fundamental Physics was a gathering of about hundred scientists who carryon their research in conceptually important areas of physical science (they do "fundamental physics"). Most of them were physicists, but also historians and philosophers of science were well represented. An important fraction of the participants could be considered "heretical" because they disagreed with the validity of one or several fundamental assumptions of modern physics. Common to all participants was an excellent scientific level coupled with a remarkable intellectual honesty: we are proud to present to the readers this certainly unique book. Alternative ways of considering fundamental matters should of course be vitally important for the progress of science, unless one wanted to admit that physics at the end of the XXth century has already obtained the final truth, a very unlikely possibility even if one accepted the doubtful idea of the existence of a "final" truth. The merits of the Olympia conference should therefore not be judged a priori in a positive or in a negative way depending on one's refusal or acceptance, respectively, but considered after reading the actual of basic principles of contemporary science, new proposals and evidences there presented. They seem very important to us.
The Psychology of Reading
Alan Kennedy A été écrit sous une forme ou une autre pendant la plus grande partie de sa vie. Vous pouvez trouver autant d'inspiration de The Psychology of Reading Aussi informatif et amusant. Cliquez sur le bouton TÉLÉCHARGER ou Lire en ligne pour obtenir gratuitement le livre de titre $ gratuitement.